The Romantic period started with a literary movement in Germany in the late 18th century. Later, the Romantic ideas spread from Germany to other European countries. Romanticism affected poets, drramatists, painters, dancers, and composers.

The characteristics of Romantic music (1820-1900) are:
~ greater freedom of form and design
~ more powerful and spontaneous expression of emotion and feelings
~ greater contrasts of loud & soft in the music


1.Franz Schubert (1797-1828)franz_schubert_by_wilhelm_august_rieder_1875

~ Austrian composer
~ “The king of songs”
~ first great composer of arts song
~ played violin and piano
~ became a choir boy in the Royal Chapel
~ had a small group of friends and admirers, some of his works were in salon style
~ works include song-cycles, art songs, sonatas, symphonies and chamber music


Celebrated works:
~ “The Winter Journey” (song-cycle)
~ “The Unfinished Symphony” (symphony)
~ “The Trout Quintet” (Instrumental Music)
~ “Erlking” (art song)





2. Robert Schumann (1810-1856)schuhmann

~ German composer
~ studied law first, but later in music
~ his wife Clara was a famous pianist
~ at the age of 34, he began to show mental instability
~ works include instrumental music, art songs, symphonies and an opera


Celebrated works:
~ “Lotus” (art song)
~ “Spring Symphony” (Symphony)
~ “Scenes from Childhood” (Instrumental Music)





3. Fryderyk Chopin (1810-1849)frederic_chopin

~Polish composer
~ “the Poet of the piano”
~ early life was spent in Warsaw
~ the other half in Paris
~ works include nocturnes, waltzes, impromptus, polonaises, mazurkas, ballades, preludes and etudes.


Celebrated works:
~ “Fantasy Impromptu”





4.Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)mendelssohn_bartholdy

~ German composer, pianist, conductor and educator
~ born into a wealthy Jewish family
~ had a well-round education
~ played a part in the revival of Bach’s music
~ organized the Leipzig Conservatory


Celebrated works:
~ Violin Concerto in E Minor (concerto)
~ “Wedding March” (Incidental Music)
~ “Songs Without Words” (Instrumental Music)
~ “Fingal’s Cave Overture” (Orchestral Music)





5. Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)tchaikovsky

~ Russian composer
~ studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory
~ worked in Rubinstein’s Moscow Conservatory
~ works are famous for their tuneful melodies, colourful instrumentations and dramatic contrasts
~ great success as a composer of orchestral music for ballet


Celebrated works:
~ Symphony no.6
~ 1812 Overture
~ Piano Concerto in B Flat Minor
~ “Swan Lake” (ballet)